Studies


Human Capital, Labour Market Friction and Migration in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia

Rym Ayadi and Jamel Trabelsi (Editors), Marwa Biltagy (Egypt), Nooh Alshyab and Ziad Abulila (Jordan), Najal El Makkaoui, Yeganeh Forouheshfar and Sara Loukili (Morocco), Rihab Bellakhal, Iyad Dhaoui, Wajdi Kthiri and Jamel Trabelsi (Tunisia)
31/05/2018
EMNES_Study_005-Human_Capital-Labour_Market_Friction_Migration-Egypt-Jordan-Morocco-Tunisia_v2-1

This study provides an overview of the main characteristics of education systems and labour markets in four Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries (SEMCs) – namely Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia – and discusses the difficulties facing the youth in their transition from school to the labour market and the pressure for them to migrate. The analysis focuses on the latest trends in youth education, employment, and migration with a special focus on gender gaps and regional inequalities as presented in the four chapters by the country experts in this study.

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Financial Development and Inclusion in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia

Rym Ayadi and Willem Pieter de Groen (Editors), Taghreed Hassouba and Chahir Zaki (Egypt), Nooh Alshyab and Serena Sandri (Jordan), Idriss Elabbassi, Aziz Ragbi and Said Tounsi (Morocco), Soumaya Ben Khelifa, Olfa Benouda Sioud, Rania Makni and Dorra Mezz
27/03/2018
EMNES_Study_004-Financial_Development_Inclusion-Egypt_Jordan_Morocco_Tunisia

The link between financial development and sustainable economic growth is complex. The academic literature published on this topic in recent years finds that financial development contributes to growth up to a certain tipping point. Beyond this tipping point, financial development would make the overall system more fragile. The benefits of financial development and the level of the tipping point seem to vary between economies. Among the factors that contribute to the variance are the composition of the financial system (institutions and market based intermediation), access (financial inclusion) and efficiency (government interventions, allocation, etc.). The complexity of the relationship between financial development and economic growth requires the assessment of the factors affecting the relationship in order to determine the most effective policies. In this study, we provide an assessment of the various factors determining financial development in terms of the financial sector structure, contribution to the economy and financial inclusion in four countries mainly Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia.

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Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Development in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco & Tunisia: Structure, Obstacles and Policies

Rym Ayadi and Emanuele Sessa, Hala Helmy El Said and Rana Hosni Ahmed, Nooh Alshyab, Serena Sandri and Fuad Al Sheikh, Mohamed Larbi Sidmou and Jad Allah Rami, Rim Ben Ayed Mouelhi and Monia Ghazali Ferchichi
04/12/2017
EMNES_Study_003-MSMEs' Development in the Southern Mediterranean Countries-1

The study provides a snap shot of the current status quo in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia regarding the development of their private sectors, with a focus on micro, small and medium enterprises. It will be used as a baseline for the definition of a robust research agenda that ultimately aims at providing sound recommendations for policy makers to improve developmental outcomes and, especially, the contribution of micro, small and medium enterprises to employment creation.

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Trade and investment in the Mediterranean: Country and regional perspectives

Cinzia Alcidi and Matthias Busse, Chahir Zaki and Nora AbouShady, Nooh Alshyab, Abdelkader Ait El Mekki, Abdessalem Abbassi, Raoudha Hadhri, Hela Ayari
12/11/2017
EMNES_Study_002-Trade and investment in the Mediterranean Country and regional perspectives-1

The Southern Mediterranean region is economically closely linked to the EU. Both regions have sought to tighten this relationship via preferential trade agreements. Along four case countries, namely Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, this study provides an overview of the current state and trend of trade flows vis-à-vis the EU. The four country reports evaluate the process of trade liberalization and its impact on trade with the EU and the rest of the world. Recently, liberalisation efforts have been channeled into the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (DCFTAs), which focus on non-tariff barriers and investment obstacles. The study emphasises that while impact assessment reports predict large economic gains for the Southern Mediterranean region from DCFTAs, negotiation have lately slowed down. The DCFTAs may have a large potential but the right sequencing and velocity need to be carefully established and prepared to ensure that the society at large benefits.

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Institutions and labour markets in the Southern Mediterranean countries – A survey of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco & Tunisia

Ahmed Badawi and Cilja Harders (lead authors), Asmaa Ezzat, Hanan Nazier, and Racha Ramadan (Egypt), Nooh Elshyab and Serena Sandri (Jordan), Sarra Ben Slimane and Moez Ben Tahar (Tunisia), Zakaria Aboueddahab and Boutaïna Bensalem (Morocco)
20/10/2017
EMNES_Study_001-Institutions and labour markets in the Southern Mediterranean countries-1

This paper provides a survey of the institutional environment in which labour markets in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia are embedded. The paper presents an overview of the main recent demographic and employment trends. It then provides a comprehensive analysis of those sections in the constitutions of the four countries and of the various labour laws and regulations that are relevant for employment and social justice. In addition, the paper explores the role of informal institutions and practical norms in shaping the behaviour of employers and employees, and highlights the problem of the weak capacity of the state to enforce labour market rules.

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Youth employment and regional integration in the Euro-Mediterranean region – Qualitative and quantitative economic analysis on whether and how regional integration could lead to youth employment

Rym Ayadi, Fragkiadakis Kostas, Leonidas Paroussos, Karkatsoulis Panagiotis, Raul Ramos, Carlo Sessa, Emanuele Sessa
20/07/2017
coberta14

The overall objective of this study is to examine how regional integration can provide both short-term and long-term solutions to the employment crisis in the Euro-Mediterranean region. The study targets both increased employment creation for and improved employability of youngsters in Southern and Northern Mediterranean countries, facing persistently high and increasingly unsustainable youth unemployment rates. The analysis conducted explores the conditions under which regional integration would contribute to enhance employment creation besides sustaining output growth, which is a precondition for the expansion of employment opportunities, yet not systematically translating into higher levels of employment. It will also bring evidence of the costs, in terms of rising inequalities and persistent instability, of not engaging in a path of regional integration conducive to inclusive growth.

Press release

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